They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. Seine Enkelin Alma starb im Alter von 16 Jahren an Typhus. He said he "turned reality into poetry but his friends thought poetry should be turned into reality and the poem imitated." [91] His non-fiction writings, most of which are philosophic and aphoristic in nature, spurred the development of many thinkers, including Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer, and Carl Jung. [46], In 1810, Goethe published his Theory of Colours, which he considered his most important work. " Prometheus " is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, in which the character of the mythic Prometheus addresses God (as Zeus) in misotheist accusation and defiance. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Der Prokurator Erzählung aus Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten (1795) In einer italienischen Seestadt lebte vorzeiten ein Handelsmann, der sich von Jugend auf durch Tätigkeit und Klugheit auszeichnete. Epigrams such as "Against criticism a man can neither protest nor defend himself; he must act in spite of it, and then it will gradually yield to him", "Divide and rule, a sound motto; unite and lead, a better one", and "Enjoy when you can, and endure when you must", are still in usage or are often paraphrased. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the rare giants of world literature. Christian August Vulpius, ebenfalls ein Schriftsteller, kennengelernt hatte. Auch die Mutter kam aus wohlhabenden Verhältnissen. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived. This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in 1805. The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. 1808 ... (Sie gebar fünf Kinder, von denen nur der älteste Sohn August am Leben blieb) Sohn: August, *1789, gest. [107][108] Both Diderot and Goethe exhibited a repugnance towards the mathematical interpretation of nature; both perceived the universe as dynamic and in constant flux; both saw "art and science as compatible disciplines linked by common imaginative processes"; and both grasped "the unconscious impulses underlying mental creation in all forms. Again during the Siege of Mainz, he assisted Carl August as a military observer. After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in 1840, his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J. M. W. The literary estate of Goethe in the Goethe and Schiller Archives was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2001 in recognition of its historical significance.[103]. Ottilie von Goethe brachte nach dem Tod ihres Mannes August, der am 21.10.1830 in Rom zwei Jahre vor Goethes Tod in Italien an His first acquaintance with Shakespeare's works is described as his personal awakening in literature.[12]. "[49] In this, he anticipated Ewald Hering's opponent colour theory (1872).[50]. Wintergedichte für Kinder Lustige Wintergedichte für grosse und kleine Kinder. She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled.[21]. (geb. "[24], After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. In Alsace, Goethe blossomed. Johann Wolfgang Goethe . Carl Vogel: "Die letzte Krankheit Goethe's". [102] He emphasized Goethe's "cultural and self-developing individualism", humanism, and cosmopolitanism.[102]. [10] He adored Caritas Meixner (1750–1773), a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would later marry the merchant G. F. Liebchen. Geburtstag von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28.08.1749 - 22.03.1832) Heute vor 271 Jahren ist Johann Wolfgang Goethe in Frankfurt am Main geboren worden. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Heute vor 271 Jahren ist Johann Wolfgang Goethe in Frankfurt am Main geboren worden. But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. [72] Like Lessing and Herder, in many respects, Goethe was a devoted Spinozist. Goethe was also a cultural force. Like Heinrich Heine, Nietzsche mentions in his writings frequently Goethe and Spinoza as a pair. In 1779, Goethe took on the War Commission of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, in addition to the Mines and Highways commissions. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wuchs mit einer jüngeren Schwester in einem wohlhabenden Elternhaus in Frankfurt auf. Das Leben der Brüder wurde durch den Großvater geprägt, der sie überaus liebte; auf ihrem weiteren Leben lastete der verpflichtende Name. Dieses Kind wurde jedoch nur ein Jahr alt. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749-1832, deutscher Dichter) Wanderers Nachtlied Über allen Gipfeln Ist Ruh, In allen Wipfeln Spürest du Kaum einen Hauch; Die Vögelein schweigen im Walde. In April 1770, Goethe left Frankfurt in order to finish his studies at the University of Strasbourg. "[63], Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. Nachdem Goethe 2 Jahre lang eine öffentliche Schule besuchte, wurde er von seinem Vater und einem Hauslehrer unterrichtet. Das gesamte Erbe ging damals laut Testament an das Großherzogtum Weimar. At this time, Goethe was acquainted with the court of Darmstadt, where his inventiveness was praised. Da die drei Enkelkinder von Goethe unverheiratet blieben, gibt es damit heute keine direkten Nachkommen des During his first meeting with Napoleon in 1808, the latter famously remarked: "Vous êtes un homme (You are a man)! I laid my hand on his heart – there was a deep silence – and I turned away to give free vent to my suppressed tears. 16. [41] In 1790, he published his Metamorphosis of Plants. Er forschte und publizierte außerdem auf verschiedenen naturwissenschaftlichen Gebieten. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wurde am 28. Quelle: Goethe, Maximen und Reflexionen. [7] All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages. Sei ewig glücklich, Wie du mich liebst! [35] Epistolary novels were common during this time, letter-writing being a primary mode of communication. Dezember 1789 in Weimar) erreichte das Erwachsenenalter. Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble highwayman from the German Peasants' War. Although his literary work has attracted the greatest amount of interest, Goethe was also keenly involved in studies of natural science. No other landscape has he described as affectionately as the warm, wide Rhine area. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace.[4][b]. The French "spoon guards", the least disciplined soldiers, occupied Goethe's house: The 'spoon guards' had broken in, they had drunk wine, made a great uproar and called for the master of the house. (In later years Goethe would bypass this problem by periodically authorizing "new, revised" editions of his Complete Works. Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed. [30] He is buried in the Ducal Vault at Weimar's Historical Cemetery. Goethe was petrified, Christiane raised a lot of noise and even tangled with them, other people who had taken refuge in Goethe's house rushed in, and so the marauders eventually withdrew again. How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [Kultur] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture? August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. During the years at Weimar before he met Schiller he began Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, wrote the dramas Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), Egmont, Torquato Tasso, and the fable Reineke Fuchs. A perfect man lay in great beauty before me; and the rapture the sight caused me made me forget for a moment that the immortal spirit had left such an abode. ("Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom?"). Während dieser Zeit arbeitete er an seiner dichterischen Laufbahn. Wie in der damaligen Zeit nicht ungewöhnlich, starben die meisten Kinder jedoch recht früh. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Johann Wolfgang Goethe, am 28. Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. [106], Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot, whose work he translated and studied. This is pictured, somewhat satirically, in George Eliot's Middlemarch. His focus on morphology and what was later called homology influenced 19th century naturalists, although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species. In 1774 he wrote the book which would bring him worldwide fame, The Sorrows of Young Werther. Von dem Dichter hoch gepriesen Als die wahren Musageten. Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church. The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was completed in stages. [100] Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life. In a couple of weeks the biography was reworked into a colourful drama. The breast was powerful, broad, and arched; the arms and thighs were elegant, and of the most perfect shape; nowhere, on the whole body, was there a trace of either fat or of leanness and decay. Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe, with this passage: The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. Goethe's journey to the Italian peninsula and Sicily from 1786 to 1788 was of great significance in his aesthetic and philosophical development. Vol. His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. Christiane von Goethe died in 1816. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Their last meeting in Carlsbad on 5 September 1823 inspired him to the famous Marienbad Elegy which he considered one of his finest works. Arnold Bergsträsser, "Goethe's View of Christ", Gálik, Marián (1975), "Two Modern Chinese Philosophers on Spinoza (Some Remarks on Sino-German Spinoza's '. By the time of his death, in order to gain a comprehensive view in geology, he had collected 17,800 rock samples. [17] Despite the immense success of Werther, it did not bring Goethe much financial gain because copyright laws at the time were essentially nonexistent. ... Gerne der Zeiten gedenk' ich, da alle Glieder gelenkig - bis auf eins. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wurde am 28.08.1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. What set Goethe's book apart from other such novels was its expression of unbridled longing for a joy beyond possibility, its sense of defiant rebellion against authority, and of principal importance, its total subjectivity: qualities that trailblazed the Romantic movement. Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heine. [45], Goethe also popularized the Goethe barometer using a principle established by Torricelli. [57], Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. In May 1772 he once more began the practice of law at Wetzlar. der Gesellschaft auf Unverständnis, da Goethe mittlerweile dem Adelsstand angehörte, Christiane aber eine Der Vater war ein promovierter Jurist, lebte aber dank eines ererbten Vermögens als Privatier. [5] Nietzsche wrote, "Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne, Goethe and Spinoza, Plato and Rousseau, Pascal and Schopenhauer. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe (1836). Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. By 1820, Goethe was on amiable terms with Kaspar Maria von Sternberg. [100] Eliot presented Goethe as "eminently the man who helps us to rise to a lofty point of observation" and praised his "large tolerance", which "quietly follows the stream of fact and of life" without passing moral judgments. Some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. [89][88] Although often requested to write poems arousing nationalist passions, Goethe would always decline. Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. 27, 1828), and the cantata Die erste Walpurgisnacht (The First Walpurgis Night, Op. [19][20], In 1776, Goethe formed a close relationship to Charlotte von Stein, an older, married woman. [98] She praised Goethe as possessing "the chief characteristics of the German genius" and uniting "all that distinguishes the German mind. On a trip to the village Sessenheim, Goethe fell in love with Friederike Brion, in October 1770,[13][14] but, after ten months, terminated the relationship in August 1771. Wenn man heute die Menschen nach dem berühmtesten deutschen Dichter fragt, werden die meisten wohl seinen Namen nennen. Sein Vater, Johann Kasper Goethe, studierte und promovierte in Jura.

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